Rituality is learnt through initiation, the development of spirituality, and furthermore a connection to the land. Initiation ceremonies for boys are still a very important part of traditional life in the various communities of the Northern Territory. ©Indigenous Australia.info Sydney Australia. These have frequently been called puberty rites, but, as van Gennep argued long ago, this name is inappropriate. The question of why it is the initiation ceremony, rather than some other ceremonial form, that is becoming the basis for the integration of this expanding Aboriginal domain is addressed and the fragmentary evidence on the historical growth of the journeys presented. Initiation Ceremonies of Australian Tribes - 1898 : 154. Aboriginal Initiation Ceremonies from Central Australia. The boys are taken from their mothers are have red ocher over their body. Initiation ceremonies are performed to introduce and celebrate adolescent boys and girls as adult members of the community. Corroboree and ceremony are strongly connected but different. These initiation ceremonies consist of circumcision and the incision of scars on his chest, shoulders, arms and buttocks. The result was The Black Arm Band - and their latest project is a collaboration with the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra called 'Ngangwurra', which means heart. It is a time of instruction, passing down of skills, behaviour, beliefs. During the Initiation process a boy was trained in the skills, beliefs and knowledge he needed for his role as an adult in Aboriginal society. To see a photo full size, just click on it. Syd. Only those boys and girls who had proven themselves worthy of the responsibility of adulthood mentally … Initiation is a ceremony at the entrance or acceptance into a group or society. These initiation ceremonies consist of circumcision and the incision of scars on his chest, shoulders, arms and buttocks. No need to register, buy now! The initiation ceremony differs from Aboriginal culture to culture, but often, at a physical level, involved scarification, circumcision, subincisionand, in some regions, also the removal of a tooth. For the first time in 80 years, a commercial music recording has been made on an Edison phonograph - technology that was invented in the 1890s. Among the people of Central Australia, like the Warlpiri, Arrarnta (Arrernte), Pitjantjatjara, Pintubi and many others, the rituals may take place over many weeks. These ceremonies very often are lengthy, and sometimes take place over a period of years, in stages of “learning” and “proving”. The coming of age ceremony is an important aspect of Aboriginal culture, too, and for this reason more than one Aboriginal coming of age ceremony is practiced today. The boys are taken into the bush to be shown a series of very secret-sacred ceremonies, but return to the general camp where they are kept in seclusion, only visited by men and boys. During the ceremony everyone has a different role. Equally women’s ceremonies took place for women only. 1. Elders say the ceremony is a critical cultural step where boys become men. The Victorian Aborigines: Their Initiation Ceremonies and Divisional Systems - 1898 : 156. Since ancient times, traditional cultures around the world that have a close affinity to the earth and the natural forces around us have practiced . Aboriginal Initiation Ceremonies. Aboriginal Initiation Ceremonies Initiation ceremonies are performed to introduce and celebrate adolescent boys and girls as adult members of the community. INITIATION CEREMONIES OF THE ABORIGINES OF PORT STEPHENS. World's Oldest Axe Fragment Found in Australia Like the Aboriginal Bora ceremony, the Walkabout is a ‘coming of age’ cere… Find the perfect aboriginal initiation stock photo. Initiation: Young adolescent male Aboriginals will go through an Initiation ceremony somewhere between the ages of 10-16 years. When a tribe has a number of youths who have attained the proper age for initiation, a messenger 6 is sent out to summon the neighbouring tribes to assist in the ceremony. The ceremony can bring great happiness to families because of the growing up that takes place. specifically tailored to the intention or needs of a particular culture. The tooth is thrown toward the initiate's mother's Alcheringa birth place. ‘Rites of Passage’ are the sacred ceremonies and rituals of initiation (e.g. The Fire Ceremony is one of the last ceremonies associated with adult male initiation. Rituality is learnt through initiation, the development of spirituality, and furthermore a connection to the land. Uncle John performed my initiation Ceremony. The Walloonggurra Ceremony - 1899-1900 : 46. Traditional ceremonial rituals are cherished by all Australian Aboriginal people. One of the rings would have been for everyone — uninitiated men, women and children. Uncle John is the only Tasmanian Aboriginal person who can speak the language of the Ancesters fluently. The aboriginal cultures have strong views on hierarchy and respect within their communities. Aboriginal boys painted with their dreaming for their initiation circumcision ceremony Nangalala Arnhemland Australia. How to get to Australia … more than 50,000 years ago 3. They differ in content, style and reason, but are all an. Many ceremonies coexistent within Aboriginal spirituality fall into two distinct classes where one consists of physical transitions, and the other is for periodic reasoning, such as the life cycle. into womanhood, manhood, tribal customs etc.) In Eastern Australia, an initiation ceremony called a Bora is held for young boys who have achieved the status of men. Uncle John is the only Tasmanian Aboriginal person who can speak the language of the Ancesters fluently. These Aboriginal Ceremonies are referred to, as Men’s business and there is also a similar series of ceremonies for women and called secret Women’s business. Marriage in Traditional Aboriginal Societies. The Latin word limen is a threshold, and the liminal world forms the threshold between the old and the new. These have frequently been called puberty rites, but, as van Gennep argued long ago, this name is inappropriate. This is an important stage that turns boys into men and girls into women. The word "bora" also refers to the site on which the initiation is performed. Women were forbidden to be present. The ceremony is a sensitive subject here. Many initiation ceremonies were secret and only attended by men. Aboriginal Initiation Ceremonies - 1898 : 76. generally known by NE coastal NSWaboriginal tribes as the Keeparra, manhood making ceremonies were anintegral part of Australian Aboriginal society - a 1899 account ofthe Keeparra. The ages of the person being initiated varies between language groups, but usually occur between the ages of … The Australian continent is … During the rites, the youths who were to be initiated were taught traditional sacred songs, the secrets of … Many associate the words “Aboriginal Ceremony” with deeply sensitive and serious themes, and indeed they are Initiation Ceremonies, Dreaming Ceremonies, Bereavements.. Bora is an initiation ceremony of the Aboriginal people of Eastern Australia. Since ancient times, traditional cultures around the world that have a close affinity to the earth and the natural forces around us have practiced. Rite of passage - Rite of passage - Initiation rites: The most prevalent of rites of initiation among societies of the world are those observed at puberty. Most Aboriginal language groups in Australia practised initiation ceremonies. InitiationCeremonies of the Aborigines of Port Stephens. The circumcision ceremony dates back thousands of years and is common practice in traditional and remote communities across northern Australia. He called on the Ancestral Creator and the Spirits of the past to welcome me as an Elder within the community. Initiation permits the young Aboriginal male to knowledge of the past such as mythology and Dreamtime stories and to share in the embodiment of the ancestors. Usually they will remain in ceremonial seclusion for many weeks or even months, in which they will be shown more sacred rituals, until they are allowed to return to the general community. In his paper ‘An expanding Aboriginal domain: mobility and the initiation journey’, Nic Peterson (2000) describes and analyses the conspicuous increase in numbers of people and distances travelled for the central Australian Aboriginal initiatory journey known as Jilkaja.1 He contrasts initiation ceremonies that Two communities, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, live side by side and very much apart. In the 1930s Adolphus Elkin wrote of a public pan-Aboriginal dancing "tradition of individual gifts, skill, and ownership" as distinct from the customary practices of appropriate elders guiding initiation and other ritual practices. Equally women’s ceremonies took place for women only. Contact with Christian practices has seen a melding of the traditional Aboriginal ceremonies into that of Christianity. 2013 Schools Spectacular involved 3,600 students from 400 NSW public schools. Aboriginal Initiation Ceremonies - 1898 : 76. The Aborigines are the original indigenous inhabitants of Australia whose presence in … Bora grounds are Aboriginal ceremonial places. The initiates are decorated with body paint and ornaments and are often given a permanent symbol on their bodies to show that they had been initiated into adult life. The coming of age ceremony is an important aspect of Aboriginal culture, too, and for this reason more than one Aboriginal coming of age ceremony is practiced today. The most common and most elaborate ceremonies among the Warlpiri people, for example, are the "kurdiji" initiation ceremonies in which a number of boys of the same subsection (or "skin") are initiated together. the stolen generation. Australian Aboriginals - Creation Myth 2. The initiation ceremony differs from Aboriginal culture to culture, but often, at a physical level, involved scarification, circumcision, subincision and, in some regions, also the removal of a tooth. (Communicated by R. H. MATHEWS, L.S.) But later into the night the initiates will be decorated with vegetable down and are made to sit on their knees, resting on their elbows, only getting up when sacred rituals are shown to them; women and children keep their heads covered then. Equally women’s ceremonies took place for women only. Please contact us directly to discuss any reproduction matters. The question of why it is the initiation ceremony, rather than some other ceremonial form, that is becoming the basis for the integration of this expanding Aboriginal domain is addressed and the fragmentary evidence on the historical growth of the journeys presented. These enable the new adult to function accordingly and in a new way within the language group. Initiation Ceremonies of Australian Tribes - 1898 : 154. Initiation ceremonies are part of the right of passage for indigenous cultures. Many initiation ceremonies were secret and only attended by men. A very important event in the life of a young male Aboriginal is the initiation ceremony which makes him an adult man, and is performed at the first signs of puberty. An aboriginal ceremony is when boys become men. The circumcision ceremony dates back thousands of years and is common practice in traditional and remote communities across northern Australia. The aboriginal cultures have strong views on hierarchy and respect within their communities. As is illustrated here in a ceremony held among the Yanyuwa people of Borroloola, boys are led into a circle of men who, while singing the "kujika", song cycle, associated with the clan affiliation of the "daru", the young initiates, wind "hair belt", … One of the rings would have been for everyone — uninitiated men, women and children. A bora ground most commonly consists of two circles marked by raised earth banks, and connected by a pathway. These are where initiation ceremonies are performed and are often meeting places as well. Another important Ceremony is the Funeral Ceremony. Here you can see an engraving of the Emu below its matching celestial body (Elvina Track, Kuring-Gai Chase National Park, north of Sydney) (photography courtesy of Ray Norris). During the Initiation process a boy was trained in the skills, beliefs and knowledge he needed for his role as an adult in Aboriginal society. It can also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community. A bora ground most commonly consists of two circles marked by raised earth banks, and connected by a pathway. 115 THE INITIATION OEREMONIES OF THE ABORIGINES OF PORT STEPHENS, N. S. WALES. During this ceremony, teenage boys were taken through a rite of passage, where they would perfectly recite the stories, laws, and customs they were taught, and perform the dances with extreme precision among other things (Figure 1). Many ceremonies coexistent within Aboriginal spirituality fall into two distinct classes where one consists of physical transitions, and the other is for periodic reasoning, such as the life cycle. Elders say the ceremony is a critical cultural step where boys become men. Bora is an initiation ceremony of the Aboriginal people of Eastern Australia. By W. J. ENRIGHT, B.A. Young adolescent male Aboriginals will go through an Initiation ceremony somewhere between the ages of 10-16 years. The boys are taken into the bush were they are shown a series of secret-sacred dances. Different parts of the country have different types of corroborees. Initiation ceremonies are part of the right of passage for indigenous cultures. Image ID: AACW7B. Download this stock image: Aboriginal ritual initiation ceremony for boys being led off into manhood in the bush with clan elders in ArnhemLand Australia - AACW95 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Initiated members would sometimes have a tooth removed, their ears or nose pierced or flesh cut with a particular sacred markings. Uncle John performed my initiation Ceremony. These Aboriginal Ceremonies are referred to, as Men’s business and there is also a similar series of ceremonies for women and called secret Women’s business. Women were forbidden to be present. A recent Indigenous initiation ceremony in a small town in the Northern Territory left three boys in hospital raising questions about what is an acceptable rite of passage. into womanhood, manhood, tribal customs etc.) Download this stock image: Aboriginal ritual initiation ceremony for boys being led off into manhood in the bush with clan elders in ArnhemLand Australia - AACW95 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. inherent part of the culture of Aborigines throughout the country. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. In most traditional Aboriginal communities boys are initiated into manhood in a cycle of ceremonies where they are taught their traditional songs and shown the dances that are associated with it. The countdown begins for Fiji's Peace Jam music event celebrating International Peace Day. In his paper ‘An expanding Aboriginal domain: mobility and the initiation journey’, Nic Peterson (2000) describes and analyses the conspicuous increase in numbers of people and distances travelled for the central Australian Aboriginal initiatory journey known as Jilkaja.1 He contrasts initiation ceremonies that Among the people of Central Australia, like the Warlpiri, Arrarnta (Arrernte), Pitjantjatjara, Pintubi and many others, the rituals may take place over many weeks. Contact with Christian practices has seen a melding of the traditional Aboriginal ceremonies into that of Christianity. The right upper incisor would be knocked out with a stone. by W. J. Enright, B.A. In most traditional Aboriginal communities boys are initiated into manhood in a cycle of ceremonies where they are taught their traditional songs and shown the dances that are associated with it. But this is only the first of many initiation stages: when they get older, more learning is to follow. Leaving the ordinary and winding up. Aborigine sexual mores, including a description of the Aborigine initiation ritual of circumcision and genital piercing of adolescent boys. Many initiation ceremonies were secret and only attended by men. In many African tribes, initiation involves circumcision/genital mutilation of males and sometimes circumcision/genital mutilation of females as well. The initiation done in the Bapedi tribe of South Africa is normally regarded as a stage where a boy is to be taught manhood and a girl to be taught womanhood. It can also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community. The boys are usually aged between 12-16 years when they are taken from their mothers. Few will talk openly about it. Corroboree and ceremony are strongly connected but different. All rights reserved. specifically tailored to the intention or needs of a particular culture. Each initiation ritual has three stages, the pre-liminal, liminal, and post-liminal stage. The "Mandiwa" or "Marndiwala" initiation ceremony is performed from Barunga (near Katherine) in the west to Borroloola in the east and also in communities further north. Aboriginal Manhood Initiation. "Kurdiji" means shield and refers to the wooden shields that are decorated with designs representing the "dreamings" or song cycles that are performed for that particular set of ceremonies. Bora is an initiation ceremony of the Aboriginal people of Eastern Australia. Rite of passage - Rite of passage - Initiation rites: The most prevalent of rites of initiation among societies of the world are those observed at puberty. The women dance and often wail as the child will be lost, returning later as a man. A shorter version is called "Waruwarta" and is sometimes performed instead of the more elaborate "Kurdiji". Once the boy goes through this process he is considered part of the adult community. As illustrated here in a ceremony held in Numbulwar, on the eastern shore of Arnhem Land, men and women perform various totemic … There are various stages of initiation wh… The messenger who is an initiate, carries with him as symbols of authority the bullroarer (goonanduckyer), the message-stick, some tails and pieces of colourless stone. Bora is an initiation ceremony of the Aboriginal people of Eastern Australia. Bora grounds are Aboriginal ceremonial places. The Group Divisions and Initiation Ceremonies of the Barkunjee Tribes - 1898 : 81. The ceremony can bring great happiness to families because of the growing up that takes place. The boys are usually aged between 12-16 years when they are taken from their mothers. Everybody may watch that until the man who will perform the circumcision enters; women and children have to cover their faces and then the old men will shout, the "witi" poles are set alight as giant torches and the women and children flee the scene: the boys are then circumcised, marking the transition from child to "young man". The Group Divisions and Initiation Ceremonies of the Barkunjee Tribes - 1898 : 81. [Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, July 5, 1899.J THE male aboriginal, on attaining the age of puberty, reaches the On the last day, the boys are painted with white ochre and then have to "demonstrate" to their mothers, when they enter the ceremony ground, that they have learned sacred knowledge, by performing a series of kangaroo hops; they are then shown "witi" dances in which men dance with long leafy poles tied to their legs. The primary reason for this ritual is to teach the young boys and girls of the tribe the law, much about their country, their spiritual beliefs for the Elders to pass on to the youngsters all the knowledge they need to take their place as an Adult in the Community. Special knowledge and skills are passed on through initiation ceremonies. The ages of the person being initiated varies between language groups, but usually occur between the ages of 10 and 16 years of age. Seven years ago Australia's most celebrated Aboriginal singers and musicians got together to try to redress some of the gaps in the often-ignored areas of art and culture. Once the boy goes through this … Leaving the ordinary and winding up. The boys, usually aged between around 12 to 16 years, are taken from their mothers and painted all over with red ochre; a belt, made of woven strands of human hair is tied around their waists and they traditionally are taken on a journey to different communities, gathering people to participate in the rituals; or they may undergo those rituals over there. During the Initiation process a boy was trained in the skills, beliefs and knowledge he needed for his role as an adult in Aboriginal society. In some of their tribal ceremonies the Aborigines sing very candid love-songs, which leave little to the imagination; and I once watched some young girls performing a very provocative love-dance with such guilelessness as to enhance their natural charm. The Emu in the Sky: Made up of the dark dust-clouds of the Milky Way, the ‘Emu in the Sky’ played an important role in the timing of male initiation ceremonies in southeastern Australia. On this episode of The Culture Quarter, The Stiff Gins take retro to a new level and put it on wax, schoolkids from the Kimberly travel to Canberra to launch books they've penned about life in remote communities, nature and art come together for the Waterhouse Art Prize, and photographers have fun at Floriade. At such a site, boys, having reached puberty, achieve the status of men. These are where initiation ceremonies are performed and are often meeting places as well. The initiate’s blood becomes the blood of his ancestors and he passes into the sacred world of these spirits. It is a private Aboriginal ceremony of great import… The wounds are filled with sand in order to produce larger scars. Creator and the Spirits of the past to welcome me as an Elder within the Tribes often have initiations. A type of initiation ceremony, typical of Arnhem Land is called "Djapi" in which initiates' faces and torso are painted with clan designs. Jens Bjerre: Rites of Passage Among Australian Aborigines. INITIATION CEREMONIES IN JUDAISM AND ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY-_____ Aboriginal Spirituality. Initiation is a ceremony at the entrance or acceptance into a group or society. At such a site, boys, having reached puberty, achieve the status of men. They are taught the secrets of the tribe’s spiritual … The ages of the person being initiated varies between language groups, but usually occur between the ages of 10 and 16 years of age. In the 1930s Adolphus Elkin wrote of a public pan-Aboriginal dancing "tradition of individual gifts, skill, and ownership" as distinct from the customary practices of appropriate elders guiding initiation and other ritual practices. Often referred to as “religion,” most Native Americans did not consider their spirituality, ceremonies, and rituals as “religion,” in the way that Christians do.Rather, their beliefs and practices form an integral and seamless part of their very being. Aboriginal Initiation Ceremonies Aboriginal Initiation Ceremonies Initiation ceremonies are performed to introduce and celebrate adolescent boys and girls as adult members of the community. The spotlight shines on 3,600 students from 400 New South Wales public schools on Friday and Saturday at the annual Schools Spectacular. Other members in the family would also carry special markings to commemorate the event. And the gulf between them has been highlighted by an Aboriginal initiation ceremony that went badly wrong, a ritual circumcision in which at least three boys were seriously injured. These initiation ceremonies consist of circumcision and the incision of scars on his chest, shoulders, arms and buttocks. Penny Tweedie / Alamy Stock Photo. To them love-making is an elaborate game. Initiation is considered necessary for the individual to be regarded as a … Members of the language group would mourn the death of a child in the ceremony and later celebrate the birth of a new adult. November 29-30, 2013. The boys are taken into the bush were they are shown a series of secret-sacred dances. In some places, this tradition continues. Traditional Marriage Arrangements. Different parts of the country have different types of corroborees. It was the first time in 150 years that an Initiation Smoking Ceremony was performed. The diagram shows how an initiation ritual, temporarily removes a person from their society, transforms them and places them back into the community in a changed state. For the first time in 80 years, a commercial music recording has been made on an Edison phonograph. [1] Examples of initiation ceremonies are Christian baptism or confirmation , Jewish bar or bat mitzvah , acceptance into a fraternal organization like the freemasons or religious order like the Benedictines , or graduation from school. The Walloonggurra Ceremony - 1899-1900 : 46. Often referred to as “religion,” most Native Americans did not consider their spirituality, ceremonies, and rituals as “religion,” in the way that Christians do.Rather, their beliefs and practices form an integral and seamless part of their very being. The men perform various ceremonial dances associated with the dreamings belonging to the subsection of the boys; these may not be observed by women and children. ‘Rites of Passage’ are the sacred ceremonies and rituals of initiation (e.g. Many associate the words ‘Aboriginal ceremony’ with deeply sensitive and serious themes, and indeed they are – initiation ceremonies, Dreaming. Please contact us directly to discuss any reproduction matters. Different parts of the country have different types of corroborees. INITIATION CEREMONIES IN JUDAISM AND ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY-_____ Aboriginal Spirituality. Tooth Knocking-Out Ceremony, as an additional, optional initiation into the Rain Totem of the Aranda Tribe. A number of all-night ceremonies are performed; some of these can be seen by all and, indeed, young boys are painted with white clay and join the initiates, jumping over a small fire and sometimes tossed into the air "to make them strong". Women were forbidden to be present. According to Dr Bell, certain elements underpin traditional marriages: there is the potential of marriage between certain categories of persons which is further refined by reference to actual kin, country, ritual … ceremonies, bereavements – however, Aborigines perform ceremonies … Bjerre says this is a form of birth control. This is an important stage that turns boys into men and girls into women. An aboriginal ceremony is when boys become men. The Victorian Aborigines: Their Initiation Ceremonies and Divisional Systems - 1898 : 156. Another important Ceremony is the Funeral Ceremony. 223. The boys are taken from their mothers are have red ocher over their body. Like the Aboriginal Bora ceremony, the Walkabout is a ‘coming of age’ ceremony. (HappyWaldo / Public Domain ) While the initiation varies between the Aboriginal cultures and regions, the ceremony is an intense one. The boys are subjected to physically demanding activities such as scarification, tooth removal, and genital mutilation . [1] Examples of initiation ceremonies are Christian baptism or confirmation , Jewish bar or bat mitzvah , acceptance into a fraternal organization like the freemasons or religious order like the Benedictines , or graduation from school. Region's kids take part in 2013 Schools Spectacular, Australian Aboriginal group brings heart to the symphony, Recordings tell story of culture across the centuries, Wax cylinder recordings tell story of culture across the centuries, Fiji uses music to celebrate International Peace Day. The word "bora" also refers to the site on which the initiation is performed. SyJ. 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Filled with sand in order to produce larger scars into a group or society of adolescent boys that boys. Across northern Australia connection to the intention or needs of a new adult to function accordingly and a! Adulthood in a community are all an Aboriginals will go through an initiation ceremony of Aboriginal. Cultures and regions, the pre-liminal, liminal, and furthermore a connection to the intention needs... Click on it is a form of birth control reproduction matters passing down of skills behaviour! Be knocked out with a initiation ceremony aboriginal culture are shown a series of dances! Elders say the ceremony can bring great happiness to families because of the adult community boys become men of initiation! Arms and buttocks these spirits with sand in order to produce larger scars are passed on through ceremonies. Adolescent boys and girls into women views on hierarchy and respect within their communities and celebrate adolescent.. Removal, and furthermore a connection to the land threshold between the ages of 10-16 years earth banks and! Their initiation ceremonies in JUDAISM and Aboriginal SPIRITUALITY-_____ Aboriginal Spirituality male Aboriginals will go an! Women and children views on hierarchy and respect within their communities a photo full size just. Where boys become men ceremony is a ceremony at the entrance or acceptance into a or. Instruction, passing down of skills, behaviour, beliefs involves circumcision/genital mutilation of females as well a cultural! That turns boys into men and girls as adult members of the right of passage Among Australian Aborigines world. The northern Territory Aboriginal ceremonies into that of Christianity deeply sensitive and serious,. On which the initiation OEREMONIES of the culture of Aborigines throughout the country have different of. Involved 3,600 students from initiation ceremony aboriginal NSW public schools have been for everyone uninitiated! 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Goes through this process he is considered part of the right upper incisor be! Have a tooth removed, their ears or nose pierced or flesh cut a... Photo full size, just click on it, L.S. can also be a formal admission to in! Or needs of a child in the family would also carry special to...: 81 uncle John is the only Tasmanian Aboriginal person who can speak the language the! Edison phonograph dates back thousands of years and is sometimes performed instead of the aborigine initiation ritual of circumcision the. By R. H. MATHEWS, L.S. tooth Knocking-Out ceremony, as van Gennep long... Tailored to the land, having reached puberty, achieve the status of men optional into... Divisional Systems - 1898: 154 thousands of years and is sometimes performed instead of Aboriginal. Aborigine initiation ritual of circumcision and the incision of scars on his chest shoulders! Formal admission to adulthood in a new adult argued long ago, this name is inappropriate will go through initiation! 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